Flood Management with floodOPT

For mature fields, significant optimization potential exists simply realigning patterns by modifying well rates to promote sweep and reduce fluid cycling. Unfortunately, engineers typically only know which producers are high watercut or high water rate wells, but not which injectors are responsible for these effects making pattern realignment difficult.  Using Streamsim's streamline-based analysis, injector-producer pairs are easily identified and well-pair connections can be quantified at any given time. floodOPT then uses the well-pair information to identify opportunities to reduce fluid cycling and increase sweep efficiency.  The goal of floodOPT is to provide new well rate targets for both injectors and producers that prompt the efficient connections and demote the inefficient connections. In this manner, floodOPT provides a systematic reservoir engineering approach, based on historical injection/production data, dynamic patterns and allocation factors, to give next month's well rate targets.

For the 16th Matzen field peripheral waterflood in Austria, surveillance along with our floodOPT workflow resulting in an oil production increase of 3% (35,000 stb) in one year, the Belridge field in California showed a reversal in oil decline, the Wilmington field in California reduce oil decline from 20% to 2% over one year, in the 8th Tortonian in Austria incremental oil production was 35,000 STB in 30 months, and in Argentina the oil decline for a water flood was reduced from 16% to 0% for the following 3 months.

More Info: PricingSPE Paper, SPE Paper Presentation

Support: Knowledge BaseTutorialsTraining

The floodOPT Workflow

One powerful aspect of streamline simulation is the ability to create a snapshot of which injectors support which producers, and how much fluid is allocated between injector/producer pairs. Thus it is possible to related injected water volumes to off-set oil production down to a well-pair level and be displayed using Streamsim's patented Flux Pattern map (FPmap). 

Since offset oil production is related to water injection this information can also be displayed in a cross-plot for every injector in the field at any given point in time.  This novel information leads to the idea of injection efficiencies--a ratio of off-set oil production to water injected--which in turn can be used to manage the flood. The injection efficiency is defined as the ratio of off-set oil production to water injected. Note the following about the injection efficiency:


  • There is an injection efficiency for each well pair (connection) as well as for each active injector in the field. The offset oil production (numerator) must be calculated using the information from the well allocation data supplied by the streamlines. On a per-injector basis this is the IEplot inside studioSL.
  • The injection efficiency is a ratio of rates and therefore represent an instantaneous metric. However, the equation applies just as well to cumulative volumes (conformance plot).
  • The definition of an efficiency can be extended to any type of injected and produced volumes and therefore can be used for gas injection as well as WAG injection or polymer injection, for example.



Once the injection efficiency is known for each well-pair, new well rates can be computed to promote good connections and demote poor connections. A plot/listing of suggested new well rates is then is calculated (delta changes shown in figure at right). Because the definition of good vs. poor is arbitray, the user can override the default setting of the reference point using an economic watercut or a user-specific watercut value. 

For details see on floodOPT, the weight funciton, and workflow see Thiele, M.R. and Batycky, R.P.; "Using Streamline-Derived Injection Efficiencies for Improved Waterflood Management," SPEREE April 2006, Vol 9, No 2, pp187-196.


floodOPT is based on either a surveillance or simulation model and allows to:

  • Generate rate targets for any number of injectors and producers
  • Apply field injection rate constraints as well rate constraints to the final target rates.
  • Define what a good vs. poor connection is based on field average water cut, group water cut, or economic limit water cut. 
  • Automatically pass rate targets back to 3DSL (or Eclipse, IX) for forecasting in a simulation model.
  • Export rate targets to Excel.
  • When using multiple geological models (see Uncertainty Quantification) display the range in well target rates across all models.
floodOPT Example Workflow within studioSL

studioSL offers a convenient way to apply floodOPT to a 3DSL run for flood management purposes and forecasting. The starting point is a 3DSL simulation omodel with an acceptable well-level history match (see more about history matching here) or a surveillance model. In case of a simulation model, the well-level history match is an important component of any reliable forecast since floodOPT uses well-pair injection/production information. The basic steps in a floodOPT workflow are:

  1. Select a 3DSL base run (history matched if a simulation model) from which to start the floodOPT workflow.
  2. Select wells for which rate changes are desired. Set constraints as necessary (min/max injection/production targets). Set parameters for the weighing used in translating well-pair efficiencies into rate increases/decreases.
  3. Calculate new rates to use for forecast run.
  4. Decide on time step to take before updating target rates again. Return to 2.

Download our surveillance dataset here.

Follow our surveillance tutorial here, to create the FPmap from the production data.

Follow our floodopt tutorial here, to create a floodOPT project.

Contact in USA

Corporate Headquarters 
StreamSim Technologies, Inc.
865 25th Avenue
San Francisco, CA 94121

Tel: (415) 386-0165

Contact in Canada

Canada Office 
StreamSim Technologies, Inc.
Suite 102A - 625 14th Street N.W.
Calgary, Alberta T2N 2A1

Tel: (403) 270-3945

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